MLA 8 Updates
What changes have been made in the updated MLA 8?
- Author descriptors are spelled out, not abbreviated (pp. 23-24): editor, translator, creator, performer
- Contribution descriptors are spelled out, not abbreviated (p. 37): edited by, adapted by, directed by, illustrated by, narrated by, performance by, directed by, etc.
- 3 or more authors: list first author and et al. (p. 22)
- There is a comma after the publication date/year unless it is at the end of the citation (pp. 32-36)
- Page numbers are indicated with p. for one page and pp. for multiple pages (p. 46). Do not include page numbers where there are none; do not use “n. pag.”
- Volume and issue number are indicated with vol. and no. (p. 32)
- No format indicator at the end (ex. Print or Web) and no city of publication (pp. 32-36)
- Date of access is now optional but should be included when the work is expected to change, especially Web sites or when there is no publication date (p. 53)
- Periods after the author, title, and “container” groups. Group 1 pertains to the specific work, such as an article in a journal or a chapter in a book: publication (journal, magazine, newspaper), other contributors, version, volume, issue number, publisher, publication date/year, page numbers. Group 2 pertains to the larger work, such as a journal or a book: database, other contributors, version, volume, issue number, publisher, publication date, and URL address. (p. 32)
- When possible, cite a permanent link or DOI for online articles. There is no period after the DOI. Do not include “https://” in the Web site address, but the www. code should be included. (p. 48)
- If the publisher and the Web site name are the same, only list it only as the Web site name. Do this also for online videos when the author and uploader are the same. (p. 42)